ad-hoc network is a local area network or other small network, such as
wireless, in which some of the network devices are part of the network
only for the duration of a communications session. In the case of mobile
and portable devices, they can be a part of the network when in close
proximity to the rest of the network.
The radio coverage area for a
wireless device to communicate with an Access Point base station. The size
of the cell can depend on the antenna, the speed of transmission, and the
channel refers to a different frequency level allowing for multiple
communication paths through one device, much the same way a radio
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
A protocol that centrally assigns
IP addresses (often local IP addresses) to a device in a TCP/IP network.
Under TCP/IP, each device that can connect to the Internet requires a
unique IP address. Rather than having to set it manually to each machine
on the network, a DHCP server can automatically distribute IP addresses
from a central point. When a new computer is plugged into a different
place on the network, it is automatically given a new IP address. DHCP is
particularly useful for a company network where there are more computers
than available IP addresses.
for Demilitarized Zone. It is an area between a computer’s private
network and its outside public network. DMZ prevents the external users
from accessing the internal private network directly.
The system in which an Internet
domain name are located and translated into an IP address. Domain names
are basically an easy to remember handle for an Internet address.
name that identifies one or more IP addresses. For example, the domain
name "microsoft.com" represents many IP addresses. Domain names
are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages. For example, in the URL
http://www.xsense.com, the domain name is xsense.com.
One of three IEEE 802.11 basic
topology schemes. ESS WLAN configurations consist of multiple BSS cells
that can be linked by either wired or wireless backbones. IEEE 802.11
supports ESS configurations in which multiple cells use the same channel,
and configurations in which multiple cells use different channels to boost
dynamic IP address is an IP address that is given out automatically from a
DHCP Server to client computers or routers on a LAN or WAN.
device that protects information in the internal private network from the
program code that is inserted into a programmable read-only memory to
become a computing device. It is created and tested like a software.
entrance to a network. It associates with both router and switch whereas
the router gives direction as data arrives at the gateway and the switch,
on the other hand, furnishes its actual path in and out of the gateway.
of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Founded in 1884, the
IEEE is an organization composed of engineers, scientists, and students.
The IEEE is best known for developing standards for the computer and
electronics industry. In particular, the IEEE 802 standards for local area
networks are widely adopted.
IEEE 802.11 Standard
In wireless LAN technology,
802.11 refers to standards set by the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers. There are three specifications in the family,
802.11, 802.11a and 802.11b. 802.11 and 802.11b refer to wireless Ethernet
LANs and operate at frequencies around the 2.4 GHz range. 802.11 generally
have data speeds of 1 or 2 Mbps while 802.11b can have speeds of 5.5 or 11
Mbps. 802.11b can also realize speeds up to 20 Mbps. 802.11a refers to
wireless ATM systems and operates at frequencies between 5 to 6 G Hz.
type of network is a wireless or other type of small network where the
wireless network devices are made a part of the network through the use of
an Access Point. The Access Point connects the device to the rest of the
global network connecting millions computers. As of 1998, the Internet has
more than 100 million users worldwide, and that number is still growing
rapidly. More than 100 countries are linked to the exchanges of data, news
Protocol is meant by sending data from one computer (host) to another on
the Internet. Each of the host has at least one IP Address, which
identifies its IP from other computers on the Internet. When sending or
receiving messages, the messages are divided into different packets that
contain addresses of the senders and the receivers.
identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using
the TCP/IP protocol route messages base on the IP address of the
destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address
written as four numbers separated by periods. Each ranges from 0 to 255.
For example, 188.8.131.52 could be a valid IP address.
IPSec (Internet Protocol Security)
developing standard for security at the network or packet processing layer
of network communication. IPSec will be especially useful for implementing
a Virtual Private Network or for remote user access to private networks
through a dial-up connection. The main advantage of IPSec is that security
arrangements can be handled without requiring changes to individual user
Area Network (LAN)
computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are
confined to a single building or a group of buildings. However, one LAN
can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and
radio waves. A system of LANs connected this way is called a wide-area
Address (Media Access Control Address)
Addresses- (Media Access Control) On a network, it is a unique 48-bit
number used in Ethernet data packets to uniquely identify an Ethernet
device, such as an Ethernet adapter.
is an abbreviation for Network Address Translation, or translation of one
IP address in a network (inside) to a different IP address in another
network (outside). It is included in a router and the firewall of a
variation of WEP 40 that allows for the receipt and transmission of both
WEP 40 encrypted packets and non-encrypted packets.
(Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet)
by DSL providers for connecting a computer to the ISPs network, similar to
how a dial-up connection works.
(Point to Point Tunneling
Protocol) PPTP is a protocol that allows Corporations to extend their own
corporate network through private “tunnels” over the public Internet.
A corporation would be able to use a wide-area network as a single large
set of rules that end points in a telecommunication use as they
communicate. These end points must recognize and observe the protocol in
(Routing Information Protocol)
widely used protocol for managing routing information within a self
contained network. Using RIP, a gateway host send its entire routing table
to it’s nearest neighbor host every 30 seconds. Then this neighbor host
will send it to the next neighbor host and so on until all hosts on the
network have the same knowledge of routing paths. This is known as network
The ability to use a wireless
device and move from one access point’s range to another access point
without a drop or loss of connection.
Shared Key Alqorithm
encryption, both the sender and the recipient use the same secret key to
both encode and decode a message.
static IP address is an IP address that does not change and is manually
set in client computer or router in a LAN or WAN.
Table mappings established by a
network administrator prior to the beginning of routing. These mappings do
not change unless a network administrator alters them, such as the IP
defines which bits in the host portion of the IP address can be used to
define a subnet.
for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the basic protocol of
the Internet, which can be used as a communications protocol in a private
network. Every computer that has direct access to the Internet has a copy
of the TCP/IP program. TCP/IP uses the client/server model in which the
user is the client that requests and is provided service by another
computer, which is the server on a network. HTTP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP and
other protocols are often packaged with TCP/IP as a “suite” in order
to get to the Internet.
stands for Trivial File Transfer Protocol. It is an internet file transfer
protocol that operates similar to FTP with few resources to run. It uses
UDP and requires no login procedures.
stands for User Datagram Protocol. It's an user interface between
applications and the IP in a network. It has the ability to address a
particular application process running on a host via a port number without
setting up a connection session. When using UDP, the entire transmission
can be sent in one or two UDP datagrams.
server at someone else's location shared by many web site owners. Users
with virtual servers can have their own domain names and IP addresses,
administer file directories, add email accounts, manage their own logs and
statistic analysis, assign multiple domain names, and maintain passwords.
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
is the address of a file (resource) accessible on the Internet. The URL
contains the name of the protocol required to access the resource, a
domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a
hierarchical description of a file location on the computer.
A wireless LAN in which a user
can connect to a network using a wireless connection. IEEE 802.11
specifies the technology for wireless LANs, as well as the Wired
Equivalent Privacy algorithm encryption method.
(Wired Equivalent Privacy)
A data privacy encryption method
based on a 64-bit shared key algorithm.
A form of security and encryption
used for WEP. It is a special sequence of characters used to restrict
access to a wireless network.
40-bit encryption method that secures data packets over an insecure path,
such as the Internet, whereby the recipient must use a matching 40-bit key
to decrypt the data.
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